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Glossary

Definition of those commonly used terms

Abduction
Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arms to shoulder height from hanging down position.

Abs
Abbreviation for abdominal muscles.

Abdominals
Abbreviation for abdominal muscles.

Absolute Strength
The maximum amount a person can lift in one repetition.

Accommodating Resistance
Increasing resistance as lifters force increases through range of motion. Nautilus machines are said to provide accommodating resistance.

Acquired Ageing
The acquisition of characteristics commonly associated with ageing but that are, in fact, caused by immobility or sedentary living.

Active Stretch
Muscles are stretched using the contraction of the opposing muscle, (antagonist). For an example stretching the triceps, requires the biceps to contract.

Adduction
Movement of a limb toward middle of body, such as bringing arms to side from extended position at shoulder.

Adhesion
Fibrous patch holding muscles or other parts together that are normally separated.

ADP (Adenosine Diphospahate)
ADP is formed when ATP is broken down within the bodies cell furnace, (the mitochondria). This provides energy for muscular contraction.

Aerobic capacity
Another term for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max)

Aerobic Exercise, (with oxygen)
Activity in which the body is able to supply adequate oxygen to the working muscles, for a period of time. Running, cross-country skiing and cycling are examples of aerobic activities.

AFWB – American Federation of Women Bodybuilders
Group that administers women’s amateur bodybuilding in America.

Agonist
Muscle directly engaged in contraction that is primarily responsible for movement of a body part.

All-or-None
Muscle fibre contracts fully or it does not contract at all.

All Natural
Athletes, especially body builders who can avoid using steroids or other banned substances.

Amino Acids
Twenty- two basic building blocks of the body that make up proteins.

AMRAP  – As many rounds as possible in the time frame given – continuous workout

Anabolic Steroid
Synthetic chemical that mimics the muscle building characteristics of the male hormone testosterone.

Anaerobic Exercise, (without oxygen)
Activities in which oxygen demands of muscles are so high that they rely upon an internal metabolic process for oxygen, resulting in lactic acid build up. Short bursts of “all-out” activities such as sprinting or weightlifting are anaerobic.

Anaerobic Threshold
The point at which you begin working your muscles without oxygen, from an aerobic level, believed to be at about 87% of your Maximum Heart Rate.

Angina Pectoris
Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

Antagonist
Muscle that counteracts the agonist, lengthening when the agonist muscle contracts.

Anti – Catabolism
Supplements such as glutamine, used to prevent breakdown within the body, in order to promote muscle growth.

Antioxidants
Vitamins A, C and E, along with various minerals, which are useful to protect the body from “free radicals”. Free radicals are unstable cells, which react with each, naturally created in the body, and also caused by factors such as smoking and radiation. Free radicals may cause cell damage, which leads to disease.

APC – American Physique Committee, Inc.
Group that administers men’s amateur bodybuilding in America.

Arm Blaster
Aluminum or fibre glass strip about 5” x 24”, supported at waist height by a strap around the neck. Keeps elbows from moving while curling barbell or dumbbells or doing triceps pushdowns.

Arteriosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard, and none elastic.

Assimilation
The process in which foods are utilized and absorbed by the body.

Arteriosclerosis
The deposition of materials along the arterial walls, a type of arteriosclerosis.

Atrophy – Withering away
Decrease in size and functional ability of tissue or organs.

Back Cycling
Cutting back on either number of sets, repetitions or amount of weight used during a exercise session.

Ballistic Stretch
A more vigorous stretch by using a swinging or bouncing motion suited only for conditioned athletes, especially in martial arts.

Barbell
Weight used for exercise, consisting of a rigid handle 5-7′ long, with detachable metal discs at each end.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Metabolic rate at rest, your bodies working output.

Bio availability
The simplicity in which nutrients can be absorbed.

Biochemical Reaction
The chemical reactions which take place within the human body.

Biological Value
A measure of protein quality in a given food.

Bio mechanics
Science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on a human body and the effects produced by these forces.

Bodybuilding
Weight training to change physical appearance.

Body Composition
The breakdown of your body make-up, i.e. fat, lean muscle, bone and water content.

Bone density
Soundness of the bones within the body, low density can be a result of osteoporosis.

Buffed – As in a “finely buffed finish”
Good muscle size and definition, looking good.

Buffer
Substances that help reduce lactic acid build-up during strenuous exercise.

Bulking Up
Gaining body weight by adding muscle, body fat or both.

Burn – As in “going for the burn”
In endurance exercise, working muscles until lactic acid build-up causes burning sensation.

Carbohydrate
Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen used by the body as a fuel source. Two main groups are sugars and starch.

Carbohydrate Loading
Increase consumption of carbohydrates in liquid or food form normally three days prior to an endurance type event.

Cardiovascular Training
Physical conditioning that strengthens heart and blood vessels, the result of which is an increase in the ability for your body muscles to utilize fuel more effectively resulting in a greater level of exercising.

Catabolism
The breakdown of lean muscles mass, normally as a result of injury, immobilization and poor dieting techniques.

Cellulose
Indigestible fibre in foods.

Chalk
Powder used on hands for secure grip.

Cheating
Too much weight used on an exercise, therefore relying on surrounding muscle groups for assistance in the movement; or changing joint angles for more leverage, as in arching back in bench press.

Chelating Agents
Soluble organic compounds that can fit certain metallic ions into their molecular structure.

Cholesterol
A fat lipid which has both good and bad implications within the human body. Good being known as HDL and bad being LDL. Bad cholesterol is associated with heart disease and stroke, whereas the body requires cholesterol for the production of many steroid hormones.

Chronic Disease
A disease or illness that is associated with lifestyle or environment factors as opposed to infectious diseases (hypo kinetic diseases are considered to be chronic diseases).

Circuit Training
Going quickly from one exercise apparatus to another and doing a prescribed number of exercises or time on each apparatus, keeps pulse rate high and promote overall fitness, by generally working all muscle groups as well as heart and lungs.

Clean
Lifting weight from floor to shoulder in one motion.

Clean and Jerk
Olympic lift where weight is raised from floor to overhead in two movements.

Clean and Snatch
One of two Olympic lifts where weight is raised from floor to overhead at arms’ length in one motion.

Coenzyme
A substance that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme’s activity.

Complete Proteins
Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids.

Compound Training
Sometimes called “giant sets”; doing 3-4 exercises for same muscle, one after the other, with minimal rest in between.

Concentric Contraction
An isotonic muscle contraction, where a muscle contracts or shortens.

Congestive Heart Failure
The inability of the heart muscle to pump the blood at a life sustaining rate.

Cool Down
Moderate then light activity, normally followed by stretching.

Coronary Circulation
Circulation of blood to the heart muscle associated with the blood carrying capacity of a specific vessel or development of collateral vessels (extra blood vessels).

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
Diseases of the heart muscle and the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen, including heart attack.

Coronary Occlusion
The blocking of the coronary blood vessels.

Creatine Phosphate
An inorganic phosphate molecule which binds with ADP and form ADT. Produced naturally within the body, however creatine mono hydrate supplements have helped a number of athletes boost their performances.

Crunches – Abdominal exercises
Sit-ups done on the floor with legs on bench, hands behind the neck.

Curl Bar
Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain.

Cutting Up
Reducing body fat and water retention to increase muscle definition.

Dead Lift
One of three power lifting events (other two are squat and bench press). Weight is lifted off floor to approximately waist height. Lifter must stand erect, shoulders back.

Deficiency
A sub optimal level of either one or more nutrients, often resulting in poor health.

Dehydration
Excessive fluid loss from the body, normally from perspiration, urination, evaporation or being sick.

Delts
Abbreviation for deltoids, the large triangular muscles of the shoulder which raise the arm away from the body and perform other functions.

Dip Belt
Large heavy belt worn around hips with a chain at each end that can be attached to a barbell plate or dumbbell for additional resistance during certain exercises like dips.

Disease/Illness Prevention
Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of preventing or reducing the risk of various illnesses and diseases.

Disease/Illness Treatment
Altering lifestyles and use of medical procedures to aid in rehabilitation or reduction in symptoms or debilitation from a disease or illness.

Diuretic
A substance that aids the increase of urine excreted by the body.

DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
A condition that is often felt after exercise, especially weight orientated, or excessive running. Caused by the micro tears within your muscles as part of the body rebuilding phase. Will generally last 24 / 72 hours, with feelings felt normally the day after exercise.

Double (Split Training) Routine
Working out twice a day to allow for shorter, more intense workouts. Usually performed by more advanced bodybuilders preparing for a contest.

Drying Out
Encouraging loss of body fluids by limiting fluid intake, eliminating salt, sweating heavily and/or using diuretics.

Dumbbell
Weight used for exercising consisting of rigid handles about 14” long with either detachable metal discs or fixed weights at each end.

Easy Set
Exercise not close to maximum effort, as in a warm-up.

Eccentric Contraction
Muscle lengthens while maintaining tension.

Electrolytes
Capable of conducting electricity in a solution. Used in many body activities, potassium, sodium and chloride are all forms of electrolytes.

Emotional Storm
A traumatic emotional experience that is likely to effect the human organism physiologically.

Endogenous
Naturally occurring body productions.

Endurance
Ability of a muscle to produce force continually over a period of time.

Enzyme
Helpful protein molecules, responsible for a multitude of chemical reactions within the body.

Ergogenic
Something that can increase muscular work capacity.

EFA’s Essential Fatty Acids
Required by the body, however only obtainable from food sources, such as flaxseed oil and safflower oil.

Exercise
Activity done for the purpose of keeping fit and healthy, or sociable in a group form like football.

Extension
Body part (i.e. hand, neck, trunk, etc.) going from a bent to a straight position, as in leg extension.

Fascia
Fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates all muscles and muscle groups. It also unites skin with underlying tissue.

Fast Twitch
Refers to muscle cells that fire quickly and are utilized in anaerobic activities such as sprinting and power lifting.

Fat
Often referred to as lipids, or triglycerides, one of the main food groups, containing nine calories per gram. It serves a variety of functions in the body, however a high percentage of body fat has been proven to be bad for you.

Fibrin
The substance that in combination with blood cells forms a blood clot.

Flex
Bend or decrease angle of a joint; contract a muscle.

Flexibility
(ROM) Range of movement in a joint or group of joints.

Flexion
Bending in contrast to extending, as in leg flexion’s.

Flush
Cleanse a muscle by increasing the blood supply to it, removing toxins left in muscle by exertion.

Forced Repetitions
Assistance to perform additional repetitions of an exercise when muscles can no longer complete movement on their own.

Free Style Training
Training all body parts in one workout.

Free-Form Amino Acids
Structurally unlinked individual amino acids.

Free Radicals
Highly reactive molecules that possess unpaired electrons. Caused by a number of factors, look at Antioxidants for prevention.

Fructose
Often used as a sugar substitute for diabetics, because of its low glycemic index. A healthier option than normal sugar, as fructose comes from fruit.

Full Spectrum Amino Acids
A supplement that contains all of the essential amino acids.

Glucagon
A hormone responsible for the regulation of blood sugar levels.

Glucose
The basic fuel of the body, the simplest sugar molecule and main sugar found in the blood stream.

Gluteals
Abbreviation for gluteus maximus, medius and minimus; the buttock muscles.

Glycemic Index (GI)
A measuring system to find the extent of which various foods raise the blood sugar level. The benchmark is white bread, which has a GI of 100. The higher the score, the greater the extents of blood sugar raise. E.g. Dextrose scores 138 (HIGH) whereas fructose 31 (LOW).

Glycogen
The principle form of carbohydrate energy (glucose) stored within the bodies muscles and liver.

Growth Hormone
A naturally released anabolic hormone by the pituitary gland. It promotes muscle growth and the breakdown of body fat for energy, unfortunately it is greatly reduced after the age of about 20.

Hand Off
Assistance in getting a weight to starting position for an exercise.

Hard Set
Perform a prescribed number of repetitions of an exercise using maximum effort.

Health and Wellness Promotion
Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of improving quality of life.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
A blood substance that picks up cholesterol and helps remove it from the body; often called “GOOD CHOLESTEROL.”

Hormones
Regulators of various biological processes through their ability to control the action of enzymes. Made from proteins, such as insulin for blood sugar control, or cholesterol for testosterone control.

Hyper kinetic Condition
A disease/illness or health condition caused or contributed by excessive exercise.

Hypertension
High blood pressure.

Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscle fibre.

Hypoglycemia
A common occurrence in diabetics, this is low blood sugar levels, resulting in anxiety fatigue and a number of other conditions including coma and death.

IFBB – International Federation of Bodybuilders, founded in 1946
Group that oversees world-wide men’s and women’s amateur and professional bodybuilding.

Illness
Symptoms that upset your health.

Incomplete proteins
Proteins which are low in one or more of the essential amino acids.

Iso kinetic Exercise
Isotonic exercise in which there is ACCOMMODATING RESISTANCE. Also refers to constant speed. Nautilus and Cybex are two types of iso kinetic machines, where machine varies amount of resistance being lifted to match force curve developed by the muscle.

Isometric Exercise
Muscular contraction where muscle maintains a constant length and joints do not move. These exercises are usually performed against a wall or other immovable object.

Isotonic Exercise
Muscular action in which there is a change in length of muscle and weight, keeping tension constant. Lifting free weights is a classic isotonic exercise.

Kinesiology
Study of muscles and their movements.

Knee Wraps
Elastic strips about 3 1/2” wide used to wrap knees for better support when performing squats, dead lifts, etc.

Lactic Acid
A substance caused by anaerobic training of the muscles, a build up prevents continuation of exercise, and a good example is 400 meter runners. Watch how they slow down during the last 100 meters of the race.

Lat’s
Abbreviation for Latissimus dorsi, the large muscles of the back that move the arms downward, backward and in internal rotation.

Lean Body Mass
Everything in the body except for fat, including bone, organs, skin, nails and all body tissue including muscle. Approximately 50-60% of lean body mass is water.

Lifestyle
Individual patterns of your typical life.

Lift Off
Assistance in getting weight to proper starting position.

Ligament
Strong, fibrous band of connecting tissue connecting two or more bones or cartilage or supporting a muscle, fascia or organ.

Lipids
All fats and fatty acids.

Lipoprotein
Fat carrying protein in the blood.

Lock Out
Partial repetition of an exercise by pushing the weight through only last few inches of movement.

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
A core of cholesterol surrounded by protein, often referred to as bad cholesterol.

Lower Abs (lower abdominals)
Abbreviation for abdominal muscles below the navel.

Lumbar
Lower region of your spine, vertebrates L1 to L5. Used for bending and extending the body forward and back, with the aid of the abdominal and erector spinae muscles.

Max
Maximum effort for one repetition of an exercise.

MB   medicine ball

Midsection
Muscles of abdominal area, including upper and lower abdominal’s, oblique’s and rectus abdominis muscles.

Military Press
Pressing a barbell from upper chest upward in a standing or sitting position.

Muscle
Tissue consisting of fibres organized into bands or bundles that contract to cause bodily movement. Muscle fibres run in the same direction as the action they perform.

Muscle Head
Slang for someone whose life is dominated by training.

Muscle Spasm
Sudden, involuntary contraction of muscle or muscle group.

Muscle Tone
Condition in which muscle is in a constant yet slight state of contraction and appears firm.

Muscularity
Another term for definition, denoting a fully delineated muscles and absence of fat.

Myositis
Muscular soreness due to inflammation that often occurs 1-2 days after unaccustomed exercise. Often referred as DOMS (Delayed onset muscle soreness)

Nautilus
Iso kinetic-type exercise machine which attempts to match resistance with user’s force.

Negative Reps
One or two partners help you lift a weight up to 50% heavier than you would normally lift to finish point of movement. Then you slowly lower weight on your own.

Non-Locks
Performing an exercise without going through complete range of motion. For example, doing squat without coming to full lockout position of knees or pressing a barbell without locking out elbows.

Oblique’s
Abbreviation for external oblique’s, the muscles to either side of abdominal’s that rotate and flex the trunk.

Odd Lifts
Exercises used in competition other than snatch and clean and jerk, such as squats, bench presses, and barbell curls.

Oestrogen
Female sex hormone.

Olympic Lifts
Two movements used in national and international Olympic competitions: the SNATCH and the CLEAN and JERK.

Olympic Set
High quality, precision made set of weights used for competition. The bar is approximately 7′ long. All moving parts have either brass bushings or bearings. Plates are machined for accurate weight.

Onion Skin
Slang denoting skin with very low percentage of subcutaneous fat, which helps to accentuate muscularity.

Overload Principle
Applying a greater load than normal to a muscle to increase its capability.

Parasympathetic Nervous System
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows the heart rate.

Partial Reps
Performing an exercise without going through a complete range of motion either at the beginning or end of a rep.

Peak Contraction
Exercising a muscle until it cramps by using shortened movements.

Pec’s (pectorals)
Abbreviation for pectoral muscles of the chest.

Performance benefit
Improvements in physical fitness as a result of exercise.

Peripheral Vascular Disease
Lack of oxygen supply to the working muscles and tissues of the body, resulting from decreased blood supply.

P.H.A. – Peripheral Heart Action
A system of training where you go from one exercise to another, with little or no rest, preferably alternating upper body and lower body exercises. Designed for cardiovascular training and to develop muscle mass.

Plyometric exercise
Where muscles are loaded suddenly and stretched, then quickly contracted to produce a movement. Athletes who must jump do these, i.e. jumping off bench to ground, quickly rebounding to another bench.

PNF Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
Stretching exercises used to increase an individuals flexibility.

Pose Down
Bodybuilders performing their poses at the same time in a competition, trying to out pose one another.

Power
Strength + speed.

Power Lifts
Three movements used in power lifting competition; the squat, bench press and dead lift.

Power Training
System of weight training using low repetitions, heavy weights.

Progressive Resistance
Method of training where weight is increased as muscles gain strength and endurance. The backbone of all weight training.

Pumped
Slang meaning the muscles have been made large by increasing blood supply to them through exercise.

Pumping Iron
Phrase that has been in use since the 1950’s, but recently greatly popularized. Lifting weights.

Quads
Abbreviation for quadriceps femoris muscles, muscles on top of the legs, which consist of four parts (heads).

Quality Training
Training just before bodybuilding competition where intervals between sets are drastically reduced to enhance muscle mass and density, and low calorie diet is followed to reduce body fat.

Reciprocal Inhibition
Reflex relaxation in a muscle being stretched.

Repetition
One complete movement of an exercise.

Rep Out
Repeat the same movement over and over until you are unable to do anymore.

Reps
Abbreviation for REPETITIONS.

Rest Interval
Pause between sets of an exercise, which allows muscles to recover partially before beginning next set.

Rest Pause Training
Training method where you press out one difficult repetition, then replace bar in stands, then after 10-20 second rest, do another rep, etc.

Ripped
Slang meaning extreme muscularity.

Roid
Slang for ANABOLIC STEROID.

Set
Fixed number of repetitions. For example, 10 repetitions may comprise one set.

Slow Twitch
Muscle cells that contract slowly are resistant to fatigue and are utilized in endurance activities such as long-distance running, cycling or swimming.

Snatch
Olympic lift where weight is lifted from floor to overhead, (with arms extended) in one continuous movement.

Spot
Assist if called upon by someone performing an exercise.

Spotter
Person who watches a person closely to see if any help is needed during a specific exercise.

Static Stretch
A stretch that is held within the stretched position for several seconds, without movement.

Sticking Point
Most difficult part of a movement.

Stiffness
A condition that is often felt after exercise, especially weight orientated, or excessive running. Caused by the micro tears within your muscles as part of the body rebuilding phase. Will generally last 24 / 72 hours, with feelings felt normally the day after exercise.

Straight Sets
Groups of repetitions (SETS) interrupted by only brief pauses, (30-90) seconds.

Strength
The ability of a muscle to produce maximum force.

Strength Training
Using resistance weight training to build maximum muscle force.

Stretch Marks
Tears (slight scars) in skin caused if muscle or fat tissue has expanded in volume faster than the skin can grow.

Striations
Grooves or ridge marks seen under the skin, the ultimate degree of muscle definition.

Stroke
A condition which occurs from insufficient oxygen supply to the brain.

Super Set
Alternating back and forth between two exercises until the prescribed number of sets is completed.

Sympathetic Nervous System
Part of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity by speeding up the heart rate.

Tendon
A band or cord of strong, fibrous tissue that connects muscle to the bone.

Testosterone
Principle male hormone that accelerates tissue growth and stimulates blood flow.

Thick Skin
Smooth skin caused by too much fatty tissue between the layers of muscle and beneath the skin.

Time Dependant Ageing
The loss of function resulting from growing old.

Training Effect
Increase in functional capacity of muscles as result of increased (overload) placed upon them.

Training Straps
Cotton or leather straps around wrists, then under and over a bar held by clenched hands to aid in certain lifts (rowing, chin-ups, shrugs, dead lifts, cleans, etc.) where you might lose your grip before working muscle to desired capacity.

Training to Failure
Continuing a set until it is impossible to complete another rep without assistance.

Traps
Abbreviation for trapezius muscles, the largest muscles of the back and neck that draw head backward and rotate scapula.

Trigger Point
An irritable spot usually found in soft tissue injury’s, such as a knot within the muscle.

Trimming Down
To gain hard muscular appearance by losing body fat.

Tri Sets
Alternating back and forth between three exercises until a prescribed number of sets is completed.

Universal Machine
One of several types of machines where weights are on tracks or rails and lifted by levers or pulleys.

Upper Abs (upper abdominals)
Abbreviation for abdominal muscles above the navel.

Variable Resistance
Strength training equipment where the machine varies amount of weight being lifted to match strength curve for a particular exercise – usually with a cam, lever arm or hydraulic cylinder. Also referred to as “ACCOMMODATING RESISTANCE.”

VO2 MAX
The maximum amount of oxygen a person can utilize per minute of work. Often written down as an evaluation of a persons cardiovascular efficiency.

Warm up
Light gradual exercises performed to get the body ready for physical activity, normally a slower version of the activity to follow. For example a light jog before a run. Often followed by stretching of the body.

Weight Training Belt
Thick leather belt used to support lower back. Used while doing squats, military presses, dead lifts, bent rowing, etc.

X-RAY
Internal view of the body, showing high density structures such as bones and teeth, using medical equipment.

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